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But French and Belgian officials do not believe killings will stop in Europe for the next few years.
Experts say territory held by the Islamic State helped the group gain fighters from other countries.
They say it also helped the group show it was different from the terror group al-Qaida which opposed the creation of the Islamic State, or IS.
Al-Qaida’s leaders criticized Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi for naming himself caliph, or leader.
Belgium also has supplied an unusually large number of fighters to IS and other jihadist groups.
French and Belgian officials say IS is very innovative.
Charlie Winter recently published a study on IS for the International Center for the Study of Radicalization and Political Violence.
But political leaders facing public demands to stop violence often resist efforts to increase understanding of radicalization.
Former French Prime Minster Valls once said he was tired of social and cultural excuses used to explain jihad. Both France and Belgium have struggled to create programs that reduce radicalization.
The research center is based in King’s College, London.
Winter says the media war has always been as important for IS as victories in Syria and Iraq.